A Building Integrated PV System for New Residential Applications in Florida: A Model Zero Energy Home
Sandia National Laboratories/ Florida Energy Office/Lakeland Electric & Water
A new project is under way to test the feasibility of designing and testing very efficient new residential buildings with integrated photovoltaic (PV) generation systems to meet cooling system and other electrical loads in a hot humid climate.
The central objective of the project would be to test the feasibility of constructing new single family residences which are engineered to reduce air conditioning loads to an absolute minimum so that most of the cooling and other daytime electrical needs can be accomplished by the PV component. The project objectives would be:
Previous work sponsored by the Florida Energy Office has simulated the possibility of greatly reducing the cooling loads in a conventional new home and then supplying most the cooling needs with a grid connected 3 kW PV array . The results showed that the cooling system of a small 1,500 ft2 home might be reduced to as low as to be served by an air conditioner with a capacity as little as a single ton (12,000 Btu) capacity. The home would feature a group of efficiency measures and high efficiency cooling equipment and appliances (natural gas used for normally resistance end-uses). A 3 kW PV array would provide much of the electricity needed to power such a building.
The PV-integrated home would have the following elements designed to minimize cooling loads. The specific measures have been simulated in detail and measured in several field projects [2-7].
As part of the project, FSEC would work with a builder in the vicinity of Lakeland, Florida to monitor two homes which are under construction. One of the houses would be of standard construction with typical appliances, insulation and standard equipment. The experimental home would contain the efficiency improvements and the PV element. Both would be extensively monitored. Specific work tasks would include:
Other Progress Report Updates
1. Parker, D.S. and Dunlop, J.P., 1994. "Solar Photovoltaic Air Conditioning of Residential Buildings," Proceedings of the 1994 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Vol. 3, p. 188, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Washington D.C.
2. Parker, D., Fairey, P., Gueymard, C., McCluney, R., McIlvaine, J. and Stedman, T., 1992. Rebuilding for Efficiency: Improving the Energy Use of Reconstructed Residences in South Florida, FSEC-CR-562-92, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL.
3. "The Surprising Potential of Programmable Thermostats" and "Comprehensive Residential Retrofit Project," BDAC Energy Files, Vol. 3, No. 2, Building Design Assistance Center at the Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa. FL.
4. Parker, D., Barkaszi, S.F., Jr, Sherwin, J.R. and Richardson, C.S., 1996. "Central Air Conditioner Usage Patterns in a Hot Humid Climate: Influences on Energy Use and Peak Demand," Proceedings of the 1996 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Vol. 8, p. 147, Washington D.C.
5. Parker, D.S., Barkaszi, S.F., Chandra, S. and Beal, D.J., 1995. "Measured Cooling Energy Savings from Reflective Roofing System in Florida," Proceedings of the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Buildings VI, DOE/ASHRAE, Clearwater, FL.
6. Ternes, M., Parker, D., and Barkaszi, S.F., 1996. "Modeled and Metered Energy Savings from Exterior Wall Insulation," Proceedings of the 1996 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy, Vol. 10, Washington D.C.
7. Parker, D. and Schrum, L., 1996. Results from a Comprehensive Residential Lighting Retrofit, FSEC-CR-914-96, Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL.