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Stylized Text: Thin Film Photovoltaics.

Thin-film photovoltaic modules are manufactured by depositing ultra-thin layers of semiconductor material on a glass or thin stainless-steel substrate in a vacuum chamber. A laser-scribing process is used to separate and weld the electrical connections between individual cells in a module. Thin-film photovoltaic materials offer great promise for reducing the materials requirements and manufacturing costs of PV modules and systems.